Haloes Dark pigmentation round or over eyes (e.g. Maltese).
Hard Expression Harsh, staring expression.
Harlequin Pure white background with
irregular patches (black preferred but blue permitted) having the
appearance of being torn (e.g. Great Dane).
Haw Third eyelid at the inner corner of the eye; more obvious in certain breeds (e.g. Spaniel (Clumber)).
Heart Room Deep and capacious chest.
Height Vertical measurement from the
withers to the ground; referred to usually as shoulder height. See
Diagram Page 22 & Appendix Page 23 on Measuring for list of breeds
which have to be measured before receiving a class award.
Hind Leg Leg from pelvis to foot.
Hindquarters Rear part of dog from loin.
Hocks well let down Hocks set low.
Hound-Marked Colouration composed of
white, black and tan, but sometimes lemon and/or blue. The ground
colour, usually white, may be marked with coloured patches on the head,
back, legs and tail. The extent and the exact location of such markings,
however, differ in breeds and individuals.
Iris Flat, circular, coloured
membrane within the eye. The inner boundary forms pupil, which adjusts
to control amount of light entering eye.
Isabella Fawn colouration (e.g. Dobermann, Bergamasco).
Jaws The bones forming the framework of the mouth.
Jowls Flesh of lips and jaws.
Keel Rounded outline of the lower chest, resembling the keel of a boat (e.g. Bloodhound, Dachshund).
Knee Joint Stifle joint.
Knuckling Over Faulty structure of
carpal (wrist) joint allowing it to protrude when dog is standing (e.g.
listed as a fault in the Basset Hound).
Landseer Black and white colouring (e.g. Newfoundland).
Layback Angle of the shoulder blade, when viewed from the side.
Leather See ear (e.g. Foxhound, Poodle, Spaniel (Cocker)).
Leggy Too long in the leg for correct balance.
Leonine Looking like a lion (e.g. Chow Chow).
Linty Soft texture of coat (e.g. Bedlington Terrier) or undercoat (e.g. Dandie Dinmont Terrier).
Lion Clip Style of coat presentation (e.g. Lowchen (Little Lion Dog), Poodle).
Lippy Pendulous lip or lips that do not fit tightly.
Liver Light to dark shades of brown,
always with a liver nose (e.g. Retriever (Curly Coated), sometimes with a
purplish bloom (e.g. Spaniel (Irish Water)). Also known as chocolate
(e.g. Retriever (Labrador)).
Loaded Shoulders Excess weight in shoulder area.
Loin Region of the body on either side of vertebral column between the last ribs and hindquarters.
Low Set 1. Tail set below level of topline. 2. Ears set below line of correct placement for the breed.
Lozenge Mark Term used for marking on
skull of Blenheim King Charles Spaniel and Cavalier King Charles
Spaniel, sometimes known as “Blenheim spot.”
Mane Long, profuse hair on top and sides of neck and chest (e.g. Leonberger, Schipperke, Tibetan Spaniel.)
Mantle Dark-shaded portion of the coat on shoulders, back and sides (e.g. Alaskan Malamute).
Markings Arrangement of coat colour, normally a lighter or darker colour as a contrast to the ground colour.
Mask Dark shading on the foreface (e.g. Boxer).
Median Line Line or furrow in the centre of head (e.g. Mastiff, Spaniel (American Cocker)).
Melon Pips Tan spots above eyes in black, tan and white Basenji.
Merle Dark colour giving marbled effect within lighter coloured main coat.
Mismarked Incorrectly marked dog.
Monorchid A dog which has only one testicle.
Mouth See bite.
Movement See gait.
Moving Close When front or hind limbs move close to each other.
Multum in Parvo “Much in little” (e.g. Pug).
Muzzle The head in front of the eyes; foreface.
Nape of the Neck Top of the neck adjacent to the base of the skull.
Neck well set on Good neckline, merging gradually with strong withers, forming a pleasing transition into topline.
Oblique Shoulders Shoulders well laid back (e.g. English Setter).
Occipital Protuberance A prominently raised occiput characteristic of some breeds (e.g. Irish Setter).
Occiput Upper, back point of skull.
Otter Tail Very thick towards base,
gradually tapering towards rounded tip, medium length, free from
feathering, but clothed thickly all round with short, dense coat giving a
rounded appearance. (e.g. Retriever (Labrador)).
Out at Elbow Elbows loose or turning out from the body.
Out at Shoulder Shoulders loosely attached to the body, causing them to jut out, increasing width of front.
Overreaching Fault in the trot often
caused by more angulation and drive from behind than in front, so the
rear feet are forced to step to one side of the forefeet to avoid
interference or clipping.
Overshot See bite.
Paddling The front feet during movement thrown out sideways in a loose, uncontrolled manner.
Pads Tough, thickened skin on the underside of the feet.
Pantaloons Longer, thick hair on rear of thighs (e.g. Pyrenean Mountain Dog).
Particolour Variegated in patches of two or more colours (e.g Spaniel (American Cocker)).
Pastern The part of the foreleg between the wrist and the foot.
Patella The knee-cap - a small bone at lower end of femur which forms a part of the stifle-joint.
Pelvis Girdle of bones fused
together. Each half being composed of the ilium, ischium and pubis; the
whole attached to the spine at the sacrum. On the lower sides are the
Pencilled Type of coat lying in pencils caused by harder hair coming through softer undercoat (e.g. Dandie Dinmont Terrier).
Pencilling Black lines on the toes (e.g. English Toy Terrier, Gordon Setter).
Pepper and Salt Mixture of light and dark hair (e.g. Schnauzer).
Pied Unequally proportioned patches of white and another colour.
Hare Pied more tan than black and white giving a coat resembling the colour of a hare. Lemon Pied mainly lemon or cream hairs mixed with white or black. Badger Pied unequally proportioned patches of black and white, tan and white, mixed together (e.g. Otterhound).
Pigeon-Chest Chest with a short protruding breastbone.
Pigmentation Natural colouring of skin and other tissues.
Pin Bones Upper bony protuberances of pelvis.
Pinning Forefeet pointing in when moving.
Pinto Distinct, dark markings on light background (e.g. Akita).
Plaiting Walking or trotting crossing the front legs.
Plume Long fringe of hair hanging from the tail (e.g. Papillon).
Point of Buttock Rearmost projection of the upper thigh at the point of the ischium. See Anatomical Diagram on Page i.
Point of Shoulder The front of the joint where upper arm and shoulder blade meet. See Measurement Diagram on Page 22.
Points Colour on face, ears, legs and tail; usually white, black or tan (e.g. Cairn Terrier).
Pounding Gaiting fault resultant of
dog’s stride being shorter in front than in the rear; forefeet strike
the ground hard before the rear stride is expended.
Profile Side view of the whole dog or of the head.
Proud Held high, usually head or tail (e.g. Poodle).
Punishing Strong (e.g. Kerry Blue Terrier).
Quality Excellence of type and
bearing giving close adherence to the Breed Standard, the indefinable
attribute denoting refinement and nobility. Also, the absence of
coarseness giving strength to a dog and refinement to a bitch without
Quarters The upper portion of the hindquarters - the pelvic and thigh regions.
Queen Anne Front (Chippendale Front) Forelegs bowed and out at elbows, pasterns close and feet turned out.
Racy Giving an impression of speed, without loss of substance .
Rangy Dog of long, thin build, often lacking maturity.
Reach Distance covered in a forward stride.
Ribbed Up Ribs extended well back.
Ridge Streak of hair growing in reverse direction to main coat (e.g. Rhodesian Ridgeback).
Ring Tail Long tail, all or part of which curves in a circular fashion (e.g. Afghan Hound).
Roach Back Convex curvature of the back toward the loin (e.g. Bulldog).
Roan Fine mixture of coloured hairs alternating with white hairs (e.g. Italian Spinone).
Ruby Eye Iris of dark red colour (e.g. Chihuahua).
Ruff Dense, harsh hair around neck which frames face (e.g. Keeshond, Norwich Terrier).
Sable Commonly used description of
coat colour. Definition varies with breed. Black-tipped hairs overlaid
on a background of gold, silver, grey, fawn or tan basic coat (e.g.
German Shepherd Dog), or each hair shaded with three or more colours
Sabre Tail Tail carried in a slightly curved fashion either upwards (e.g. Basset Hound) or downwards (e.g. German Shepherd Dog).
Saddle 1. Variation in colour over back (e.g. German Shepherd Dog). 2. Area of shorter coat over back (e.g. Afghan Hound).
Scimitar Tail As sabre tail (e.g. Bloodhound, Gordon Setter).
Screw Tail A naturally short tail twisted in more or less spiral formation.
Second Thigh The part of the hind leg from stifle to hock.
Sedge Gold Red gold colour (e.g. Retriever (Chesapeake Bay)).
Self Colour Whole colour except for lighter shadings.
Set On 1. Placement of tail on body. 2. Position of ears on skull.
Sesame Even overlay of black guard hairs usually on red coat (e.g. Japanese Shiba Inu).
Shawl Longer hair around neck and shoulders (e.g. Tibetan Spaniel).
Shelly Weakly formed, shallow and narrow in body; lacking substance.
Short Coupled Short distance between last rib and the beginning of the hindquarters.
Shoulder Height Height of dog’s body as measured from withers to ground. See Diagram Page 22.
Shoulder Joint Joint between the shoulder blade (scapula) and the upper arm (humerus).
Sickle Hocked Inability to extend the hock joint on the backward drive of the hind leg. Exaggerated narrow angle of hock when standing.
Sickle Tail Carried out and up in a semicircle over the back (e.g. Basset Fauve de Bretagne).
Single Tracking All footprints falling on a single line of travel. Many breeds single track at fast paces.
Skull Bones of the head. Breed Standards refer to that part from stop to occiput.
Skully Thick and coarse through skull.
Slab-Sided Flat ribs with too little spring from spinal column. “Herring gutted”.
Sloping Shoulder The shoulder blade set obliquely or “laid back”.
Snatching Hocks A gaiting fault
indicated by a quick outward snatching of the hock as it passes the
supporting leg and twists the rear pastern far in beneath the body. The
action causes noticeable rocking in hindquarters.
Snipy Muzzle Pointed, weak muzzle.
Snow Nose Nose showing loss of pigment resulting in a pink streak on nose in winter (e.g. Siberian Husky).
Socks 1. Hair on the feet to pasterns (e.g. Chinese Crested Dog). 2. White colour on feet (e.g. Old English Sheepdog).
Sooty Black hairs intermingling with tan or base colour (listed as undesirable in Elkhound standard).
Soundness A term particularly applied to movement. The normal state of mental and physical well being.
Spectacles Light shadings around the eyes and dark marking from outer corner of eye to ear (e.g. Keeshond).
Spitz Group of breeds that have wedge
shaped heads with prick ears, usually straight and rather harsh outer
coats with dense undercoats, moderate turn of stifle and tails usually
carried over back.
Splayfoot Flatfooted with toes spreading.
Spring of Rib Degree of curvature of rib cage.
Steel Blue Body Colour of Yorkshire Terrier.
Stern Tail of a sporting dog or hound.
Stifle The joint of the hind leg between the thigh and second thigh equivalent to the knee.
Stilted Characteristic gait of Chow Chow due to minimum hind angulation.
Stop The step up from muzzle to skull; indentation between the eyes where the nasal-bone and skull meet.
Straight Shoulders Insufficient lay back of shoulder; upright shoulder.
Straight Stifle Lack of angulation; straight behind.
Substance Correct bone, muscularity and condition.
Swayback Concave curvature of the back line between the withers and the hip bones.
Symmetry Overall balance (e.g. Retriever (Golden)).
Tail Set The position of the tail on the croup.
Temperament Mixture of natural qualities and traits that produce character.
Texture of Coat Quality or feel of coat.
Thick Set Broad and solidly built.
Thigh Hindquarter from hip to stifle.
Throatiness Excess of loose skin in the throat region.
Thumb Marks 1. Distinctive black spot in black and tan coloured breeds on pastern (e.g. English Toy Terrier). 2. Distinctive mark on forehead (e.g. Pug).
Ticked Small areas of black flecks, or coloured hairs on a white background.
Tied at the Elbows Elbows set too close under body, thus restricting movement.
Topknot Long, silky, fluffy or woolly hair on top of head (e.g. Australian Terrier, Bedlington Terrier, Poodle).
Topline Outline from just behind withers to croup.
Trace Black line extending from occiput to twist (tail) on a Pug.
Tricolour Coat of three distinct colours.
Tuck Up Upward curve of underline of body (e.g. Hungarian Vizsla).
Turn Up Upturned under jaw (e.g. Griffon Bruxellois).
Twist Tail (e.g. Pug).
Type Characteristic qualities distinguishing a breed.
Undercoat Dense, soft coat concealed by longer top-coat.
Underline The shape found under dog from brisket to flank.
Upper Arm The foreleg between the shoulder and elbow joints.
Upright Shoulder Minimum layback of shoulder.
Varminty Game and spirited, usually applied to Terriers.
Veiled Coat Fine, wispy long hair (e.g. Chinese Crested Dog).
Weaving Movement Feet crossing over, plaiting when moving.
Wedginess Lacking chiselling.
Weedy Light-bone structure, lacking substance.
Well Laid Shoulders Optimum shoulder angulation.
Well Sprung Ribs Ribs springing out from spinal column giving correct shape.
Wheaten Pale yellow or fawn colour.
Wheel Back Back line excessively roached.
Whip Tail Relatively long, thin, pointed tail, carried stiffly out in line with back (e.g. Greyhound).
Withers Highest point of body
immediately behind neck; this is the top of the shoulder blades, the
point from which height is measured. See Diagram Page 22.
Wrinkle Crease, furrow or ridge of skin (e.g. Basenji).
Wry Mouth Lower jaw does not line up with upper jaw, i.e twisted to one side.