KissMe Kennels Miniature American Shepherds

How does a judge pick Best In Show?


Weight Prediction - A calcuator for puppies - YMMV!

Breeding Terms 

In-breeding - In-breeding is when a mating takes place between dogs very closely related, i.e. brother to sister, mother to son, father to daughter. This creates a very small gene pool so highlighting the bad genes as well as the good genes. Deformities can also be attributed to this type of breeding.

Out-crossing - When a mating takes place between two dogs totally unrelated to each other, thus throwing many different genes into the pool making it more difficult to determine the characteristics and type of the resulting litter. However, introducing an outcross stud dog to a pedigree with a very small gene pool can bring in much needed fresh genes, but again a mating recommended for the breeder with extensive knowledge.

Line-breeding - The type of mating most used and accepted amongst the top breeders. This is usually a mating between grandfather and granddaughter, uncle to niece. Dogs that are related but once or twice removed and breeders that have knowledge of the genetic lines of these dogs are more likely to produce puppies of a quality and type.



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Abdomen The body cavity between the chest and pelvis.

Action Movement. The way a dog walks, trots or runs.

Albino Lacking in pigmentation, usually with pink eyes.

Angulation The angles formed at a joint by the meeting of bones e.g. shoulder or stifle, when dog is standing erect.

Apple Head Very domed, rounded skull (e.g. Chihuahua).

Apron Longer hair below the neck on the chest. Frill.

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Back Region between withers and root of tail, but in some standards may refer to region between withers and loin.

Badger Colour Admixture of white/grey/brown and black hairs of varying intensity (e.g. Bloodhound), often occurring in patches about the head and/or body on a basic white background, which is termed badger pied (e.g. Basset Griffon Vendeen).

Balance Consistent whole; symmetrical; typically proportioned as a whole or as regards its separate parts; i.e. balance of head, balance of body, or balance of head and body.

Bandy Legs Bowed legs.

Barrel Ribs Rounded, well-sprung ribs.

Beard Thick, long hair on muzzle and underjaw (e.g. Bearded Collie).

Beaver Mixture of white, grey, brown, black hairs (e.g. Pomeranian).

Beefy Overweight, over muscled.

Belly Underpart of abdomen.

Belton Intermingling of coloured and white hairs as blue belton, lemon, orange or liver belton (e.g. English Setter).

Bitchy Feminine looking.

Bite The relative position of the upper and lower front [incisor] teeth when the mouth is closed.

Irregular Bite Some or all of the incisors have erupted in abnormal fashion.

Level, Even, Pincer or Vice-Like Bite The front teeth meet exactly edge to edge.

Overshot Bite The upper front teeth overlap and do not touch the lower front teeth when the mouth is closed. Usually a fault.

Scissor Bite The upper front teeth closely overlapping the lower teeth and set square to the jaws.

Undershot Bite The lower front teeth project beyond the upper front teeth when the mouth is closed.

Reverse Scissor Bite The upper incisors close just inside the lower.

Blanket Solid colour of coat on back and upper part of sides between neck and tail.

Blaze White stripe running up the centre of the face (e.g. Bernese Mountain Dog).

Blenheim Rich chestnut markings on a pearly white background (e.g. Cavalier King Charles and King Charles Spaniels).

Bloom The sheen of a coat in prime condition.

Blown When the coat is moulting or casting.

Bobtail Naturally tail-less dog or a dog with a tail docked very short. Alternative name for the Old English Sheepdog.

Bodied Up Mature, well developed.

Body Anatomical section between fore and hind quarters.

Body Length In some breeds taken as the distance from point of shoulder to point of buttock, in others, taken from top of withers to set on of tail.

Bone The thickness, quality, and strength of bone as seen in the legs, especially forelegs.

Bone Shape Shape of bone in cross-section (foreleg). May be flat (e.g Gordon Setter), oval (e.g. Pointer) or round (e.g. Australian Cattle Dog).

Bossy in Shoulder Over development of the shoulder muscles.

Bowed Forelegs curved outward (e.g. Pekingese).

Bracelets Rings of hair left on the legs of some breeds in show trim (e.g. Poodle).

Breastbone Series of bones and cartilages which form the floor of the chest. Also known as sternum or keel.

Breeching 1. Hair on outside of thighs (e.g. Chow Chow). 2. Undesirable intermingling of tan amongst black hair on outside of hindlegs (e.g. Manchester Terrier).

Breed Standard “Blueprint” of the ideal specimen in each breed approved by a governing body e.g. The Kennel Club, the FCI and the American Kennel Club. Following agreement at the 1981 World Congress of Kennel Clubs, The Kennel Club changed all its Breed Standards into a standard format to enable easy comparison.

Breed Standard (Interim) As above for a breed not granted Kennel Club Challenge Certificate status.

Brindle Colour pattern caused by darker hairs forming bands which produce a striped effect on a background of tan, brown or yellow (e.g. Boston Terrier, Boxer, Cairn Terrier, Great Dane).

Brisket Forepart of body below the chest, between the forelegs.

Broken Colour Self colour broken by white or another colour.

Bull Neck Short, thick heavy neck.

Butterfly Nose Parti-coloured nose; dark, spotted with flesh colour (e.g. Great Dane (Harlequin), Otterhound).

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Characteristics Combination of type, appearance, disposition and behaviour.

Cheek Fleshy part of the head below eyes and above mouth.

Cheeky Cheeks prominently rounded; thick, protruding.

Chest The forepart of the body enclosed by the ribs.

Chippendale Front Forelegs out at elbows, pasterns close, and feet turned out.

Chiselled Clean cut, showing bone structure of face (e.g. Fox Terrier (Smooth), Spaniel (Cocker)).

Chops Jowls or pendulous flesh of the lips and jaw.

Cloddy Thickset, comparatively heavy.

Coarse Lacking refinement.

Coat The hairy outer covering of the skin. Many breeds have two coats; an outer coat and an undercoat. Examples of single-coated breeds are Italian Greyhounds, Maltese and Pointers.

Corded Coat Narrow or broad twists of felted hair like thick string or ribbon, formed by the intertwining of top coat and discarded undercoat. Cords should always be distinctly separated from each other, down to the skin (e.g. Hungarian Puli, Komondor,).

Curly Coat A mass of thick tight curls, which traps air, protecting the dog against water and cold (e.g. Retriever (Curly Coated), Spaniel (Irish Water)).

Smooth Coat Short smooth, close-lying hair (e.g. Bull Terrier, Dachshund (Smooth-Haired)).

Stand-off Coat Long, harsh jacket with hair standing out from the body supported by shorter, soft, dense undercoat (e.g. Keeshond).

Wire (Broken) Coat Consists of a harsh and often wiry outer jacket with a softer dense undercoat (e.g. German Wirehaired Pointer, Schnauzer).

Cobby Short-bodied, compact.

Collar Marking around the neck, usually white (e.g. Boston Terrier).

Compact Closely put together; not rangy. Neat.

Condition Health as shown by the body, coat, general appearance and deportment. Denoting overall fitness.

Conformation The form and structure; physique.

Conical Head Head that is circular in section and tapers uniformly from skull to nose (e.g. Dachshund).

Conjunctiva Thin membrane lining the inner surface of eyelids and reflected over eyeball.

Corkscrew Tail Twisted tail, not straight.

Coupling The part of the body between the last rib and the start of the hindquarter section; the loin region.

Short-Coupled/Close-Coupled The situation when this distance is short and relatively strong.

Long-Coupled The converse to short-coupled.

Open Couplings Long loins and flanks insufficiently well muscled (e.g. listed as undesirable in the Retriever (Flat Coated)).

Cow-Hocked Hock joints turned or pointed towards each other, causing the feet to turn out.

Crabbing Dog moves with body at an angle to the line of travel.

Crank Tail Sharply bent or angled tail (listed as a fault in Bullmastiff).

Crest 1. Upper, arched portion of the neck. 2. Hair starting at stop on head and tapering off down neck (e.g. Chinese Crested Dog).

Croup (Rump) Part of the back from the front of the pelvis to root of the tail.

Crown 1. Highest part of the head. 2. Circular formations of hair at front of ridge as on the Rhodesian Ridgeback.

Cryptorchid Male dog without testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Culotte Longer hair on the back of the thighs (e.g. Chow Chow, Schipperke).

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Dappled Mottled marking of different colours, no one predominant (e.g. Dachshund).

Daylight The light showing underneath the body.

Dead Grass Straw to bracken colour. (e.g. Retriever (Chesapeake Bay)).

Dentition The number and arrangement of teeth. The total number of teeth is forty two, made up of:-

Upper jaw; six incisors, two canines (eye teeth), eight premolars and four molars.

Lower jaw; six incisors, two canines, eight premolars and six molars.

Dewclaw Fifth digit on the inside of pastern. Most breeds do not have rear dewclaws but some breeds require double rear dew claws (e.g. Briard, Pyrenean Mountain Dog) and the Italian Spinone has single rear dew claws.

Dewlap Loose, pendulous skin under the throat.

Diamond Distinctive shaped marking on a Pug’s forehead.

Dish-Faced When the nasal bone is so formed that the nose is higher at the tip than at the stop; or, a slight concavity of the line from the stop to the nose tip (e.g. Pointer).

Dock To shorten the tail.

Doggy Masculine looking.

Domed Evenly rounded in skull (e.g. King Charles Spaniel).

Down-Face The muzzle inclining downwards in an unbroken outward arc from the top of the skull to the tip of the nose (e.g. Bull Terrier).

Down on Pastern Weak or faulty pastern set at an exaggerated angle from the vertical.

Drive Powerful thrusting of the hindquarters denoting sound locomotion.

Dry The skin smooth; neither loose nor wrinkled.

Dudley Nose Nose lacking in pigment.

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Ear Consists of three parts: the external ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. Standards refer to the outer ear (ear lobe or leather). There are three main types of ear shape:

Erect pricked (e.g. German Shepherd Dog, Pomeranian).

Drop pendent, pendulous (e.g Retrievers, Spaniels which include Lobular e.g. Spaniels (Cocker) and Spaniels (American Cocker)).

Semi-drop semi-pricked (e.g. Collies, Fox Terriers).

Bat Ear Erect ear, rather broad at the base, rounded in outline at the top, and with opening directly to the front (e.g. French Bulldog).

Button Ear The ear flap folding forward, the tip lying close to the skull so as to cover the opening, and pointing toward the eye.

Cropping The cutting or trimming of the ear leather to make the ears stand erect. No dog with cropped ears is eligible to take part in any Kennel Club Licensed activity in the U.K.

Filbert Ear Rounded off triangular shape as in a Filbert nut (e.g. Bedlington Terrier).

Flying Ears Any characteristically drop ears or semi-prick ears that stand or “fly”.

Rose Ear Small drop ear which folds over and back thus revealing the upper part of the external ear canal (burr) (e.g. Bulldog, Whippet).

Ectropion Condition in which the eyelids are turned outwards.

Elbow The joint between the upper arm and the forearm.

Elbows, out at Turning out or away from body; not held close.

Elongated Skull Long, slender, tapering skull.

Entire Dog Dog with two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Entropion Condition in which the eyelids are turned inwards causing irritation.

Equilateral Equal sided triangle (e.g. Bichon Frise – Head and Skull clause).

Expression The general appearance of all features of the head as viewed from the front.

Eye All standards include an eye clause which usually comments on shape, size and eye colour. Shape and size are due to the shape of the area exposed by the eye rims i.e. orbital aperture. (The eyeball is round.) Eye types include:-

Almond Eyes Aperture basically of oval shape, bluntly pointed at both ends (e.g. English Toy Terrier, Irish Setter (unshelled almond), Akita).

Globular Eye Round, slightly prominent, not bulging (e.g. Pug).

Goggle Eye Protruding eye listed as a fault in the Spaniel (American Cocker).

Oval Eyes The most common eye shape. Egg-shaped aperture (e.g. Saluki, Schnauzer).

Round Eyes Eyes set in circular-shaped apertures (e.g. Griffon Bruxellois, Weimaraner).

Triangular Eyes More angular in contours than oval eyes (e.g. Afghan Hound).

Obliquely Set Eyes Eyes where the outer corners are higher in the skull than the inner corners (e.g. Japanese Spitz).

Eye Colour This is due to the presence of the pigment melanin in the iris. The more melanin the darker the eye.

China Eye Both eyes clear blue.

Merle Eye Iris flecked with brown and blue.

Wall Eyes One blue and one brown eye (e.g. Great Dane (Harlequin), Old English Sheepdog).

Eyebrows The skin and hair above the eye covering the projecting superciliary ridges.

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Fall Long hair surrounding head (e.g. Lhasa Apso, Yorkshire Terrier).

Fallaway Slope of the croup.

Fallow Light reddish or yellowish brown.

Feathering Longer fringe of hair on ears, legs, tail or body.

Feet These are made up of four separate toes (digits). The toes are joined by a fold of skin termed the web. Feet vary in shape:-

Cat (like) Foot Short, round, compact foot like that of a cat (e.g. Spaniel (Cocker)).

Hare Foot Foot with the two centre toes appreciably longer than the outside toes. The toes should be close together with arching. (e.g. Borzoi hind feet, Tibetan Spaniel).

Oval (spoon shaped) Feet Both centre toes are slightly longer than in cat feet (e.g Pointer, Welsh Corgi (Pembroke)).

Webbed Feet These have well-developed webs (Newfoundland, Retriever (Chesapeake Bay)).

Flag Feathering on tail (e.g. English Setter, Gordon Setter).

Flange Projecting edge of last rib (e.g. listed as a fault in Basset Hound).

Flank Fleshy side of the body between the last rib and the front of thigh.

Flat Sided Central section of the ribs insufficiently rounded.

Flecked Colour Coat or eye lightly ticked with another colour.

Flews Pendulous upper lips - chops (e.g. Bulldog).

Floating Rib The last (thirteenth) rib which is attached only to the spinal column.

Flocked Coat of cottonwool texture (e.g. Bolognese).

Fluting Median furrow on skull (e.g. Spaniel (English Springer)).

Forechest Front part of the chest (e.g. Boxer, Miniature Pinscher).

Foreface Head in front of the eyes, nasal bone, nostrils and jaws.

Forehand Front part of dog, including head, neck, shoulders, upper arm, legs and feet.

Foreign Expression Expression not typical of the breed.

Foreleg Front leg from elbow to foot.

Forequarters Front part of dog excluding head and neck.

Foxy Expression Sharp expression; pointed foreface and upright ears as in head shape of a fox (e.g. Schipperke).

Frill Long, soft or silky hair hanging down from throat and chest (e.g Japanese Chin).

Fringes Longer hair on ears (e.g. Papillon).

Front Forepart of the body as viewed head on.

Frontal Bone Skull bone above the eyes.

Frosting White or grey hairs intermingled with base colour round muzzle (e.g. Belgian Shepherd Dog, Griffon Bruxellois).

Furnishings Longer hair on head, legs and tail of certain breeds.

Furrow Slight indentation on the median line from stop to occiput (e.g. Bulldog, Hungarian Vizsla).
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Gait The pattern of footsteps at various rates of speed, each pattern distinguished by a particular rhythm and footfall.

Amble A relaxed, easy gait in which the legs on either side move in unison or in some breeds almost, but not quite, as a pair. Often seen as the transition movement between the walk and faster gaits (e.g. Bouvier des Flandres).

Extended Trot Trotting gait in which the limbs reach far forward.

Flying (Suspended) Trot A fast trotting gait in which all four feet are off the ground for a brief moment during each stride. Because of the long reach, the oncoming hind feet step beyond the imprint left by the front.

Gallop Fastest of the dog gaits, has a four beat rhythm and often an extra period of suspension during which the body is propelled through the air with all four feet off the ground.

Hackney Action High stepping front action with exaggerated flexion of the pasterns (e.g. Miniature Pinscher).

Pacing Movement where fore and hindlegs on the same side move in parallel. Some breeds typically pace at slow speeds (e.g. Pyrenean Mountain Dog, Spaniel (English Springer)). Many breeds pace slowly as an energy conserving measure. 

Rolling Gait Distinctive roll from side to side when moving (e.g. Pekingese, Spaniel (Clumber), Spaniel (Sussex)).

Trot A rhythmic two-beat diagonal gait in which the feet at diagonally opposite ends of the body strike the ground together; i.e. right hind with left front and left hind with right front. Correctly, the hind feet fall immediately behind the front feet.

Walk Gaiting pattern in which three legs are in support of the body at all times, each foot lifting from the ground one at a time in regular sequence.

Gay Tail The tail carried very high or over dog’s back. Often indicates that the tail carriage is higher than approved in the breed standard. Some standards do ask for tails to be carried gaily (e.g. Fox Terrier (Smooth)).  
Guard Hairs Longer, smoother, stiffer hairs which grow through the undercoat (e.g. Alaskan Malamute) 
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Haloes Dark pigmentation round or over eyes (e.g. Maltese).

Hard Expression Harsh, staring expression.

Harlequin Pure white background with irregular patches (black preferred but blue permitted) having the appearance of being torn (e.g. Great Dane).

Haw Third eyelid at the inner corner of the eye; more obvious in certain breeds (e.g. Spaniel (Clumber)).

Heart Room Deep and capacious chest.

Height Vertical measurement from the withers to the ground; referred to usually as shoulder height. See Diagram Page 22 & Appendix Page 23 on Measuring for list of breeds which have to be measured before receiving a class award.

Hind Leg Leg from pelvis to foot.

Hindquarters Rear part of dog from loin.

Hocks well let down Hocks set low.

Hound-Marked Colouration composed of white, black and tan, but sometimes lemon and/or blue. The ground colour, usually white, may be marked with coloured patches on the head, back, legs and tail. The extent and the exact location of such markings, however, differ in breeds and individuals.

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Iris Flat, circular, coloured membrane within the eye. The inner boundary forms pupil, which adjusts to control amount of light entering eye.

Isabella Fawn colouration (e.g. Dobermann, Bergamasco).

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Jaws The bones forming the framework of the mouth.

Jowls Flesh of lips and jaws.

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Keel Rounded outline of the lower chest, resembling the keel of a boat (e.g. Bloodhound, Dachshund).

Knee Joint Stifle joint.

Knuckling Over Faulty structure of carpal (wrist) joint allowing it to protrude when dog is standing (e.g. listed as a fault in the Basset Hound).

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Landseer Black and white colouring (e.g. Newfoundland).

Layback Angle of the shoulder blade, when viewed from the side.

Leather See ear (e.g. Foxhound, Poodle, Spaniel (Cocker)).

Leggy Too long in the leg for correct balance.

Leonine Looking like a lion (e.g. Chow Chow).

Linty Soft texture of coat (e.g. Bedlington Terrier) or undercoat (e.g. Dandie Dinmont Terrier).

Lion Clip Style of coat presentation (e.g. Lowchen (Little Lion Dog), Poodle).

Lippy Pendulous lip or lips that do not fit tightly.

Liver Light to dark shades of brown, always with a liver nose (e.g. Retriever (Curly Coated), sometimes with a purplish bloom (e.g. Spaniel (Irish Water)). Also known as chocolate (e.g. Retriever (Labrador)).

Loaded Shoulders Excess weight in shoulder area.

Loin Region of the body on either side of vertebral column between the last ribs and hindquarters.

Low Set 1. Tail set below level of topline. 2. Ears set below line of correct placement for the breed.

Lozenge Mark Term used for marking on skull of Blenheim King Charles Spaniel and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, sometimes known as “Blenheim spot.”

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Mane Long, profuse hair on top and sides of neck and chest (e.g. Leonberger, Schipperke, Tibetan Spaniel.)

Mantle Dark-shaded portion of the coat on shoulders, back and sides (e.g. Alaskan Malamute).

Markings Arrangement of coat colour, normally a lighter or darker colour as a contrast to the ground colour.

Mask Dark shading on the foreface (e.g. Boxer).

Median Line Line or furrow in the centre of head (e.g. Mastiff, Spaniel (American Cocker)).

Melon Pips Tan spots above eyes in black, tan and white Basenji.

Merle Dark colour giving marbled effect within lighter coloured main coat.

Mismarked Incorrectly marked dog.

Monorchid A dog which has only one testicle.

Mouth See bite.

Movement See gait.

Moving Close When front or hind limbs move close to each other.

Multum in Parvo “Much in little” (e.g. Pug).

Muzzle The head in front of the eyes; foreface.

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Nape of the Neck Top of the neck adjacent to the base of the skull.

Neck well set on Good neckline, merging gradually with strong withers, forming a pleasing transition into topline.

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Oblique Shoulders Shoulders well laid back (e.g. English Setter).

Occipital Protuberance A prominently raised occiput characteristic of some breeds (e.g. Irish Setter).

Occiput Upper, back point of skull.

Otter Tail Very thick towards base, gradually tapering towards rounded tip, medium length, free from feathering, but clothed thickly all round with short, dense coat giving a rounded appearance. (e.g. Retriever (Labrador)).

Out at Elbow Elbows loose or turning out from the body.

Out at Shoulder Shoulders loosely attached to the body, causing them to jut out, increasing width of front.

Overreaching Fault in the trot often caused by more angulation and drive from behind than in front, so the rear feet are forced to step to one side of the forefeet to avoid interference or clipping.

Overshot See bite.

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Paddling The front feet during movement thrown out sideways in a loose, uncontrolled manner.

Pads Tough, thickened skin on the underside of the feet.

Pantaloons Longer, thick hair on rear of thighs (e.g. Pyrenean Mountain Dog).

Particolour Variegated in patches of two or more colours (e.g Spaniel (American Cocker)).

Pastern The part of the foreleg between the wrist and the foot.

Patella The knee-cap - a small bone at lower end of femur which forms a part of the stifle-joint.

Pelvis Girdle of bones fused together. Each half being composed of the ilium, ischium and pubis; the whole attached to the spine at the sacrum. On the lower sides are the hip-joints.

Pencilled Type of coat lying in pencils caused by harder hair coming through softer undercoat (e.g. Dandie Dinmont Terrier).

Pencilling Black lines on the toes (e.g. English Toy Terrier, Gordon Setter).

Pepper and Salt Mixture of light and dark hair (e.g. Schnauzer).

Pied Unequally proportioned patches of white and another colour.

Hare Pied more tan than black and white giving a coat resembling the colour of a hare. Lemon Pied mainly lemon or cream hairs mixed with white or black. Badger Pied unequally proportioned patches of black and white, tan and white, mixed together (e.g. Otterhound).

Pigeon-Chest Chest with a short protruding breastbone.

Pigmentation Natural colouring of skin and other tissues.

Pin Bones Upper bony protuberances of pelvis.

Pinning Forefeet pointing in when moving.

Pinto Distinct, dark markings on light background (e.g. Akita).

Plaiting Walking or trotting crossing the front legs.

Plume Long fringe of hair hanging from the tail (e.g. Papillon).

Point of Buttock Rearmost projection of the upper thigh at the point of the ischium. See Anatomical Diagram on Page i.

Point of Shoulder The front of the joint where upper arm and shoulder blade meet. See Measurement Diagram on Page 22.

Points Colour on face, ears, legs and tail; usually white, black or tan (e.g. Cairn Terrier).

Pounding Gaiting fault resultant of dog’s stride being shorter in front than in the rear; forefeet strike the ground hard before the rear stride is expended.

Profile Side view of the whole dog or of the head.

Proud Held high, usually head or tail (e.g. Poodle).

Punishing Strong (e.g. Kerry Blue Terrier).

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Quality Excellence of type and bearing giving close adherence to the Breed Standard, the indefinable attribute denoting refinement and nobility. Also, the absence of coarseness giving strength to a dog and refinement to a bitch without weakness.

Quarters The upper portion of the hindquarters - the pelvic and thigh regions.

Queen Anne Front (Chippendale Front) Forelegs bowed and out at elbows, pasterns close and feet turned out.

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Racy Giving an impression of speed, without loss of substance .

Rangy Dog of long, thin build, often lacking maturity.

Reach Distance covered in a forward stride.

Refined Elegant.

Ribbed Up Ribs extended well back.

Ridge Streak of hair growing in reverse direction to main coat (e.g. Rhodesian Ridgeback).

Ring Tail Long tail, all or part of which curves in a circular fashion (e.g. Afghan Hound).

Roach Back Convex curvature of the back toward the loin (e.g. Bulldog).

Roan Fine mixture of coloured hairs alternating with white hairs (e.g. Italian Spinone).

Ruby Eye Iris of dark red colour (e.g. Chihuahua).

Ruff Dense, harsh hair around neck which frames face (e.g. Keeshond, Norwich Terrier).

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Sable Commonly used description of coat colour. Definition varies with breed. Black-tipped hairs overlaid on a background of gold, silver, grey, fawn or tan basic coat (e.g. German Shepherd Dog), or each hair shaded with three or more colours (e.g. Pomeranian).

Sabre Tail Tail carried in a slightly curved fashion either upwards (e.g. Basset Hound) or downwards (e.g. German Shepherd Dog).

Saddle 1. Variation in colour over back (e.g. German Shepherd Dog). 2. Area of shorter coat over back (e.g. Afghan Hound).

Scimitar Tail As sabre tail (e.g. Bloodhound, Gordon Setter).

Screw Tail A naturally short tail twisted in more or less spiral formation.

Second Thigh The part of the hind leg from stifle to hock.

Sedge Gold Red gold colour (e.g. Retriever (Chesapeake Bay)).

Self Colour Whole colour except for lighter shadings.

Set On 1. Placement of tail on body. 2. Position of ears on skull.

Sesame Even overlay of black guard hairs usually on red coat (e.g. Japanese Shiba Inu).

Shawl Longer hair around neck and shoulders (e.g. Tibetan Spaniel).

Shelly Weakly formed, shallow and narrow in body; lacking substance.

Short Coupled Short distance between last rib and the beginning of the hindquarters.

Shoulder Height Height of dog’s body as measured from withers to ground. See Diagram Page 22.

Shoulder Joint Joint between the shoulder blade (scapula) and the upper arm (humerus).

Sickle Hocked Inability to extend the hock joint on the backward drive of the hind leg. Exaggerated narrow angle of hock when standing.

Sickle Tail Carried out and up in a semicircle over the back (e.g. Basset Fauve de Bretagne).

Single Tracking All footprints falling on a single line of travel. Many breeds single track at fast paces.

Skull Bones of the head. Breed Standards refer to that part from stop to occiput.

Skully Thick and coarse through skull.

Slab-Sided Flat ribs with too little spring from spinal column. “Herring gutted”.

Sloping Shoulder The shoulder blade set obliquely or “laid back”.

Snatching Hocks A gaiting fault indicated by a quick outward snatching of the hock as it passes the supporting leg and twists the rear pastern far in beneath the body. The action causes noticeable rocking in hindquarters.

Snipy Muzzle Pointed, weak muzzle.

Snow Nose Nose showing loss of pigment resulting in a pink streak on nose in winter (e.g. Siberian Husky).

Socks 1. Hair on the feet to pasterns (e.g. Chinese Crested Dog). 2. White colour on feet (e.g. Old English Sheepdog).

Sooty Black hairs intermingling with tan or base colour (listed as undesirable in Elkhound standard).

Soundness A term particularly applied to movement. The normal state of mental and physical well being.

Spectacles Light shadings around the eyes and dark marking from outer corner of eye to ear (e.g. Keeshond).

Spitz Group of breeds that have wedge shaped heads with prick ears, usually straight and rather harsh outer coats with dense undercoats, moderate turn of stifle and tails usually carried over back.

Splayfoot Flatfooted with toes spreading.

Spring of Rib Degree of curvature of rib cage.

Steel Blue Body Colour of Yorkshire Terrier.

Stern Tail of a sporting dog or hound.

Stifle The joint of the hind leg between the thigh and second thigh equivalent to the knee.

Stilted Characteristic gait of Chow Chow due to minimum hind angulation.

Stop The step up from muzzle to skull; indentation between the eyes where the nasal-bone and skull meet.

Straight Shoulders Insufficient lay back of shoulder; upright shoulder.

Straight Stifle Lack of angulation; straight behind.

Substance Correct bone, muscularity and condition.

Swayback Concave curvature of the back line between the withers and the hip bones.

Symmetry Overall balance (e.g. Retriever (Golden)).

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Tail Set The position of the tail on the croup.

Temperament Mixture of natural qualities and traits that produce character.

Texture of Coat Quality or feel of coat.

Thick Set Broad and solidly built.

Thigh Hindquarter from hip to stifle.

Throatiness Excess of loose skin in the throat region.

Thumb Marks 1. Distinctive black spot in black and tan coloured breeds on pastern (e.g. English Toy Terrier). 2. Distinctive mark on forehead (e.g. Pug).

Ticked Small areas of black flecks, or coloured hairs on a white background.

Tied at the Elbows Elbows set too close under body, thus restricting movement.

Topknot Long, silky, fluffy or woolly hair on top of head (e.g. Australian Terrier, Bedlington Terrier, Poodle).

Topline Outline from just behind withers to croup.

Trace Black line extending from occiput to twist (tail) on a Pug.

Tricolour Coat of three distinct colours.

Tuck Up Upward curve of underline of body (e.g. Hungarian Vizsla).

Turn Up Upturned under jaw (e.g. Griffon Bruxellois).

Twist Tail (e.g. Pug).

Type Characteristic qualities distinguishing a breed.

U top
Undercoat Dense, soft coat concealed by longer top-coat.

Underline The shape found under dog from brisket to flank.

Upper Arm The foreleg between the shoulder and elbow joints.

Upright Shoulder Minimum layback of shoulder.

V top
Varminty Game and spirited, usually applied to Terriers.

Veiled Coat Fine, wispy long hair (e.g. Chinese Crested Dog).

W top
Weaving Movement Feet crossing over, plaiting when moving.

Wedginess Lacking chiselling.

Weedy Light-bone structure, lacking substance.

Well Laid Shoulders Optimum shoulder angulation.

Well Sprung Ribs Ribs springing out from spinal column giving correct shape.

Wheaten Pale yellow or fawn colour.

Wheel Back Back line excessively roached.

Whip Tail Relatively long, thin, pointed tail, carried stiffly out in line with back (e.g. Greyhound).

Withers Highest point of body immediately behind neck; this is the top of the shoulder blades, the point from which height is measured. See Diagram Page 22.

Wrinkle Crease, furrow or ridge of skin (e.g. Basenji).

Wry Mouth Lower jaw does not line up with upper jaw, i.e twisted to one side.